Rikicin ilmantarwa ya zama ruwan dare gama gari, kuma duk da sunansu, matsaloli ne masu sarƙaƙiya tare da tasirin tunani mai faɗi. Suna buƙatar shiga tsakani da yawa waɗanda suka ƙunshi ƙalubalen tunani da ilimi. Waɗannan batutuwan suna da alaƙa da juna a fakaice don haka suna buƙatar magance su tare.

Fahimtar kalmomin nakasa ilmantarwa

Sharuɗɗa biyu, "rashin ilimi" (wanda ƙungiyar likitocin ke amfani da shi) da "ƙayyadadden nakasar ilmantarwa" (makarantu ke amfani da su), duka biyun suna nuni ne ga yanayin da yaron da ke da ikon tunani na yau da kullun yana fuskantar wahala mai ban mamaki. a yi bayaninsu ta kowace hanya. Kalmomin biyu suna da ma'anoni iri ɗaya kuma galibi ana amfani da su tare; duka biyun suna magana ne akan abin da ake kira "matsalolin ci gaban neurodevelopmental". Wadannan matsalolin na iya bayyana a kowane lokaci a cikin ci gaban yaro kuma suna iya samun alamomi daban-daban a shekaru daban-daban.

Koyaya, akwai mahimman bambance-bambancen fasaha a tsakanin su. “Rashin koyo” kalma ce ta bincike. Kwararren mai lasisi, yawanci masanin ilimin halayyar dan adam, yana bincikar mutumin da ke fama da matsalar ilmantarwa bisa jerin alamun matsalolin sarrafawa waɗanda zasu iya haifar da matsaloli da damuwa ga yaro. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Commands (DSM), jagorar da ƙwararrun masu lasisi irin su likitoci da masana ilimin halayyar ɗan adam ke amfani da su don tantance yanayin, ya gane matsalolin ilmantarwa guda uku:

  • Takamaiman matsalar koyo a cikin karatu
  • Takamaiman matsalar koyo a rubuce.
  • takamaiman matsalar koyo a cikin lissafi

A wani bangaren kuma, “nakasa ilmantarwa” kalma ce ta doka. Makarantar jama'a tana gano ɗalibi mai nakasa koyo. Wannan na iya haifar da haƙƙoƙin doka, kamar haƙƙin ilimi na musamman. Hakanan ana amfani da nakasar ilmantarwa lokacin da bambance-bambance a cikin sarrafa fahimi ke haifar da lahani na aiki ga mutumin da wannan yanayin ya shafa. Waɗannan galibi sun ɗan fi tsanani kuma sun cika ka'idojin cancanta don nakasa koyo a wata jiha. Sharuɗɗan cancanta sun bambanta daga jiha zuwa jaha, kodayake akwai ɗan juzu'i. Saboda haka, ganewar asali da masanin ilimin halayyar dan adam ko likita ya yi na iya ko ba zai iya cika ka'idojin cancanta don ilimi na musamman a duk jihohi ba.

Kamar yadda aka fada a kan karantawar shafin yanar gizon yanar gizo na yanar gizo, nakasassu na koyo (da rikice-rikice na ilimi) suna haifar da matakai da muhalli da ke da alaƙa da koyo. Waɗannan matsalolin sarrafawa na iya tsoma baki tare da koyan ƙwarewar asali kamar karatu, rubutu, da/ko lissafi. Hakanan za su iya tsoma baki tare da ƙwarewa mafi girma kamar tsari, tsara lokaci, tunani mara kyau, hankali, da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya mai tsawo da gajere. Ƙididdigar bincike sun nuna cewa kewayon 8-15% na yawan jama'a suna da wani nau'i na rashin ilmantarwa, kuma kusan ɗaya cikin biyar, ko 20%, suna da matsalolin kulawa.

Abubuwan da ke tattare da ilimin halin dan Adam na nakasa ilmantarwa

Matsalar ilmantarwa/nakasassu na iya shafar rayuwar mutum fiye da ilimin ilimi, gami da dangantaka da dangi, abokai, da wurin aiki. Rikicin ilmantarwa da nakasu matsaloli ne masu rikitarwa waɗanda ke buƙatar shiga tsakani da yawa waɗanda suka haɗa da matsalolin tunani da ƙwarewar ilimi a ɗaya ko fiye da wuraren koyo, koda kuwa gabaɗaya hankali ko kuzari bai shafi ba. Kalubalen ilimin tunani suna da alaƙa a fakaice kuma ba za su rabu da ƙalubalen ilmantarwa ba kuma dole ne a magance su tare. Duk da haka, ayyukan yau da kullum ba sa la'akari da yanayin da ba a iya rarrabawa ba. Abin takaici, ƴan masu bincike da/ko ƙwararru suna tuntuɓar waɗannan batutuwa tare, waɗanda ke da mummunan sakamako.

Kodayake LDs an haɗa su a cikin DSM (a matsayin "Cutar Ilimi na Musamman" ko SLD) kuma ana daukar su da cututtuka na neurodevelopmental, tare da wasu irin su autism spectrum disorder (ASD) da rashin kulawa da hankali (ADHD) , duk da haka, ana kula da su akai-akai. a cibiyoyin ilimi. fage, kuma marasa lafiya sau da yawa ba sa samun taimakon tunani da suke buƙata (Margolis & Broitman, 2023).

Bincike ya tabbatar da cewa buƙatun lafiyar mutanen da ke da nakasa koyo sun fi na sauran jama'a girma (Health, 2004) kuma sun fi sau biyu zuwa uku fiye da fuskantar matsalolin tabin hankali da damuwa na tunani.(Lindsey, 2002). Vedi & Bernard, 2012; Wilson et al., 2009). An kuma bayar da rahoton cewa mutanen da ke da AD sun fi fuskantar damuwa, damuwa, da tunanin kashe kansu (Svetaz et al., 2000).

Ilimin halayyar yara da matasa na iya ɗaukar nau'o'i da yawa, kuma alamomi iri ɗaya na iya faruwa sau da yawa a duk nau'ikan bincike. Yayin da akwai sauye-sauye mai yawa ta yadda matasa masu AD suka fuskanci matsalolin lafiyar hankali, ƙiyasi sun nuna cewa sama da kashi 70% na matasa masu matsalar harshe suna da tabin hankali. Wannan ya yi daidai da abin da muke lura da asibiti a cikin mutane tare da AD: sau da yawa suna da maimaita abubuwan da suka faru na kasawa, ana zargin su da barin kansu da sauran mutane, da / ko jin dadi game da kansu.

Mutanen da ke da AD na iya yin nasara da rayuwa mai gamsarwa, amma yanayin zai iya rikitar da tsarin. Lokacin da yake da wahala a “nuna abin da kuka sani,” za mu iya fahimta da kyau ganin ƙimar da ke da alaƙa da makaranta (Sparks & Lovett, 2009, Margolis da Broitman, 2023). Kwararru suna buƙatar ƙwarewa a cikin tunanin tunani da ilimi, kimantawa, da magani don yiwa abokan cinikin su hidima da kyau.

Muhimman Karatun Ilimi

Tushen matsalar tazara

Rarraba ƙwararru tsakanin ilimi na musamman, ilimin halin ɗabi'a, ilimin halin makaranta, da ilimin tabin hankali na yara suna ba da gudummawa ga yanayin karyewar halin yanzu na jiyya na AD. Kamar yadda aka tattauna a cikin Ciwon Koyo Tsakanin Tsawon Rayuwa: Tsarin Kiwon Lafiyar Hankali (2023) (Margolis da Broitman), akwai dalilai na asali guda biyar na rarrabuwar ƙwararru:

  • Yayin da manhajojin farko na likitocin yara sun mayar da hankali kan fahimtar abubuwan da suka shafi tunanin mutum da ke tasiri ga yara a cikin yanayin ci gaban su da ilmantarwa, wanda ya canza tare da sabon mayar da hankali kan abubuwan da suka shafi tunani, tunani, tunani, da kuma neuropsychological. Hanyoyi guda biyu sun bayyana wadanda suka fara rarrabuwar kawuna: daya ta tsakiya kan fahimta daya kuma ta tsakiya kan tausayawa.
  • Sauye-sauyen zamantakewa na ƙarshen XNUMXth da farkon ƙarni na XNUMX, gami da karatun tilas, ya haifar da yawan ilimantar da mutane daga sassa daban-daban tare da bambance-bambancen ɗaiɗaikun ɗaiɗai cikin hanyoyin koyo. Ilimin ilimin halayyar makaranta ya taso don ganowa da kula da yara masu ci gaba na yau da kullun da kuma kasawa a cikin samun ƙwarewar ilimi. Yayin da malamai na musamman suka zama firamare wajen magance bambance-bambancen ɗaiɗaikun ɗaiɗaikun koyo a makarantun makarantu, masana ilimin halayyar ɗan adam sun zama ƙwararru wajen tantance ilimin yara, musamman idan ana buƙata don samun damar waɗannan ayyukan na ilimi na musamman.
  • A cikin 1975, Majalisa ta zartar da doka mai mahimmanci Dokar Ilimi ga Duk Nakasassu (Dokar Jama'a 94-142) da ke buƙatar makarantun jama'a don samar wa ɗalibai nakasassu iri-iri, gami da "nakasa ta jiki, rashin hankali, , magana, hangen nesa da matsalolin harshe. , matsalolin tunani da ɗabi'a, da sauran matsalolin ilmantarwa - tare da "ilimin da ya dace na jama'a kyauta." Koyaya, bayan aiwatar da su, ayyukan AD an haɓaka su ne kawai a cikin tsarin ilimi kuma suna ƙarfafa ƙarin rabuwa na jiyya na tunani daga jiyya na AD.
  • Saboda ana magana da LD a makarantu, an cire shi sosai daga fagen likitanci da kuma ɗaukar inshorar lafiya. Yawancin sauran cututtukan ci gaban neurodevelopmental, misali ADHD ko ASD, ana kuma magance su a makarantu, amma sun dace da ilimin halin ɗan adam. Rashin ɗaukar hoto yana haifar da ƙarancin iyalai na yara tare da AD don neman magani na hankali.
  • Wannan rashin biyan kuɗin da aka yi na ilimin halin ɗan adam da aka yi tare da mutanen da ke da AD ya kuma rage yuwuwar cewa za a haɓaka jiyya na tunani da aka tsara don mutanen da ke da AD. Saboda bincike gabaɗaya baya mayar da hankali kan haɓaka jiyya don abubuwan da ba za a iya biya ba, ba a cika yin nazarin jiyya na AD ba.
  • Ko da yake kowane horo yana da ra'ayi na musamman da kuma wuraren gwaninta, yin tunani tare game da wuraren da aka yi a kima da jiyya zai haifar da kyakkyawan sakamako ga mutanen da ke da AD. Irin waɗannan hanyoyin haɗin gwiwar za su buƙaci yunƙurin ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun shirye-shiryen horar da ƙwararrun waɗanda zasu iya yin tasiri akan bincike da aiki.

    Na gaba: Lakabi ba duka ba ne: Yadda alamun bincike za su iya zama kayan aiki masu amfani idan aka yi amfani da su daidai don gano matsalolin tunani da koyo.

    Abubuwan Taimako:

  • https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator/cgg/students-with-disabilities
  • https://www.healthyplace.com/parenting/learning-disabilities/learning-disabilities-statistics-and-prevalence
  • https://www.crossrivertherapy.com/learning-disabilities-statistics
  • https://ldaamerica.org/lda_today/el-estado-de-las-discapacidades-del-aprendizaje-hoy/
  • https://www.understood.org/en/articles/learning-disabilities-by-the-numbers